ISSN: 2278-5213








Bacteriological Quality Assessment of Fresh Lettuce and Tomato from Local Markets of Gondar, Ethiopia

Samuel Sahile, Teshager Legesse and Zewdu Teshome PDF


Fruits and vegetables are source of nutrients, micronutrients, vitamins and fiber which are important for health and wellbeing of human. However, they are also well recognized as potential sources of bacterial infections. The aim of this study was to assess the bacteriological quality of fresh lettuce and tomato, 60 samples of tomato and lettuce were purchased from three places of the road side markets of Gondar town. Samples were analyzed for the prevalence of pathogenic microorganisms by standard plate count. All the samples were contaminated by pathogenic microorganisms although the level of contamination varied. Escherichia coli (65%) were the most dominant bacterial isolate associated with both tomato and lettuce. This was followed by Pseudomonas aeroginosa (61.7%), Enterobacter aerogenes (60%), Staphylococcus aureus (55%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (43%) and Salmonella species (10%). In all the samples tested, lettuce carried higher incidence of the pathogens than tomato. The handling practices of the retailers is generally low where most of the respondents use moistening of fruits and vegetables with contaminated water that promote the spread of pathogenic microorganisms. Poor hygienic practice is the main contributing factor for high level of contamination hence consumer’s awareness on the dangers of pathogens and retailers training on how to protect fruits and vegetables from all sources of contamination is highly important.


Keywords: Lettuce, tomato, bacteriological quality, Escherichia coli, Salmonella, handling practices.



Impact of Dashen Brewery Effluent on Irrigation Water Quality of Shinta River in Gondar, Ethiopia

Jigar Yirsaw Teshome, Abay Gelanew and Befekadu Abayneh PDF


The main objective of this study is to assess the quality of water released from Dashen brewery and used for irrigation to grow vegetables in Gondar city of Ethiopia. Water samples from the upper part of Shinta river (which is above the point of effluent of waste water to the river), at the point of brewery waste water effluent, and other four sampling points (100 m, 200 m, 300 m and 400 m) down the stream from the point of waste water effluent were taken to determine the pollution level of Shinta river by the waste water exposed by the Dashen brewery. The water samples were taken to the laboratory and analyzed by standard analysis methods. The result of the laboratory analysis of the water samples show that most of the physico-chemical properties of the waste water (Electrical Conductivity, Total Suspended Solids, Total Dissolved Solids, Dissolved Oxygen, Biological Oxygen Demand, Chemical Oxygen Demand, nitrate and phosphate) were above the standard set by USEPA limit for irrigation water. pH, temperature and trace elements (As, Cd, Pb, Hg, Ni and Zn) were within the permissible limit of  USEPA for irrigation water. Therefore the water released from Dashen Brewery in to the Shinta River should be released to the river after treated with standard waste treatment plant and the responsible bodies should have regulatory mechanisms in order to protect the river water from pollution.


Keywords: Water quality, Dashen brewery, Shinta river, physico-chemical properties, permissible limit.


Major constraints in Sustaining Soil Conservation System-An Ethiopian Experience

Kassaye Gurebiyaw PDF


Soil is a vital resource which provides momentous ecosystem service. It is the principal resource surrounded by lithosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere and atmosphere. It can play crucial role to interlink these four spheres in addition to being medium for plant growth. But, soil degradation is one of the major challenges in Ethiopia hindering the productivity of land. Soil and water conservation which is the combination of appropriate land use and management practices that promote the productive and sustainable use of soils was considered as an option. Soil resource conservation attempt was just four decades old in Ethiopia. Several soil and water conservation work has been carried out every year through some campaigns that involved different communities. However, the sustainability of these practices has been threatened by different factors, such as institutional factors, attitudinal factors, economic factors, biophysical factors and demographic factors. Thus, under long run condition, any decision and policies regarding soil conservation must consider all these factors. The detail regarding the major constraints existing in soil and water conservation system in Ethiopia is described in this article.

Keywords: Soil ecosystem, soil degradation, management practices, sustainability, water conservation.













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