ISSN: 2278-5213







Liquid Fermentation in Improving Functional Ingredients of Phellinus linteus

Ayesha Anam Zia, Sharoon Ejaz and Xiaobin Yu PDF


Medicinal fungi and edible fungi are the best sources to get nutraceuticals and functional foods that have enhanced properties to use as medicinal and nutritive properties. Phellinus linteus is a medicinal fungus having many medicinal and nutritive effects but is very rare. There’s an immense need to increase production efficiency with enhanced quality polysaccharide production derived from Phellinus linteus. This review mainly focuses on the production of polysaccharide and their improvement using Phellinus linteus. Polysaccharides and other bioactive compounds from Phellinus linteus mycelia help in enhancing immunomodulatory, antioxidant, anti-cancerous, anti-inflammatory, hypoglycaemic properties of bioactive compounds thus giving health and pharmaceutical benefits through liquid fermentation-based bioconversions. This review summarizes extraction, production, and fermentation conditions optimization methods used in different studies to improve many medicinal properties of polysaccharide and other bioactive compounds along with the production of products having a different mode of action in a single production process that increases the impact of using liquid fermentation for improving functional ingredients production efficiency and activity. Further studies and researches help industries in achieving nutritive benefits from Phellinus linteus.

Keywords: Functional components, polysaccharides, phellinus linteus, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer.



Biosynthesis of Anthocyanins and their Applications as Food Additives
Irakoze Evangeline, Nduwayezu Barithazar and Gakuba Emmanuel PDF


An essential attribute of a food product is its visual appeal, where the color is the most evident. As most food products are acknowledged by consumers concerning color, food dyeing is a significant part of the food manufacturing process and is an imperative characteristic that governs the acceptability of a product by consumers. Food pigments are frequently chemical-based and because of the detrimental effects of chemicals used in the food industry, there is currently a growing tendency toward natural food coloring. Anthocyanins have been recommended as favorable food additives with a significant role in human health. Anthocyanins are the leading group of water-soluble colorants in the plants, which are liable for the red, purple and blue color apparent in fruits, vegetables, flowers and grains, and a microbial systems, such as, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Escherichia coli were used for the synthesis of anthocyanins, where the synthesis of anthocyanin cyaniding 3-O-glucoside (C3G) reached a maximum titer of 350 mg/L. Anthocyanins are appraised to be largely eaten up by mankind worldwide because of being natural pigments found in fruits, red wine, and vegetables. Curiosity in anthocyanin-rich foods and extracts has increased lately due to their promising health benefits. Anthocyanins have been revealed to display antioxidants, anti-diabetic, anti-carcinogenic, and containing visual activities, and so on. Discoveries of their valuable health properties assist their importance as natural food pigments, functional foods, and dietary additives. The present review describes up to date benefits of anthocyanins and their biosynthesis.

Keywords: Food colorants, anthocyanins, colour stability, anthocyanidin, biosynthetic pathway.



Significance of Genetic and Biochemical Mediators in Delineating the Clinical Manifestation of Asthma
C.J. Thirupurasundari and B. Sukesh PDF


“The Global Impact of Respiratory Disease” forum considers asthma as one of the paramount respiratory diseases in the world. This common chronic disease affects the quality of life in all age group people and may cause premature death. Asthma is an inflammatory disease identified, with intermittent cough, wheeze, and shortness of breath brought by characteristic triggers and relieved by bronchodilating medications. Varied definitions to this complex disorder are befitting as it may include progressive lung impairment and in some patients, eventuate in partially reversible or irreversible airway obstruction. Epithelial cells and smooth muscle cells are the two airway cell types crucial in asthma pathogenesis. The regulation and activation of cytokines and chemokines and the scheme of airway injury may provide insights into novel therapeutic targets. The prime role of IgE in pathogenesis has led to the focus towards humanized monoclonal antibodies as a possible treatment. It is reported that an initial small set of genes activate the risk in susceptible individuals which in turn are modulated by another set of genes along with environmental cues. Identification of specific genes and variation within those, which leads to this menace, has been an ultimatum in asthma research. This syndrome collectively highlights on the importance of family history, overlapping phenotypes with specific clinical, physiological characteristics, genetic, environmental risk factors, and their interactions. The root causal inflammatory signals with noticeable biomarkers, co morbidities and response to therapies are less explored. The cornerstone of asthma pathogenesis and its treatment is about inflammation control; remodel the air flow and their ensuing symptoms. On a regular basis, certain preventive medications can treat inflammation of the airways, hence can reduce flare-ups. Hence, they are used to keep asthma under control. Effective management depends on promoting patients to adhere to treatment and clinicians to guidelines.


Keywords: Asthma, hypersensitivity, immunoglobulins, exacerbations, cytokines, asthma care.
















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