ISSN: 2278-5213








Bacteriological and Physicochemical Profile of Water Samples Collected from River and Stream Water Basins Crossing Gondar town, North West Ethiopia

Habtu Tessema, Samuel Sahile and Zewdu Teshome PDF


Bacteriological and physicochemical properties of water samples collected from river and stream crossing the Gondar town was investigated. A total of 60 samples were taken and studied for three consecutive months. Physicochemical properties such as turbidity, electrical conductivity, pH, total hardness, nitrite, chloride, calcium, phosphate, Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and sulfate were estimated. The pH, EC, total hardness, Mg, sulfate, and chloride level in all the 20 sampling areas were below the recommended national and international guideline values, whereas phosphate, BOD, COD and turbidity showed maximum variation. At sampling areas 6 and 19, high and low value of nitrate was recorded respectively. At sample areas of 4, 8, 9, 10 and 11, calcium level was high. The coliform MPN test results in all 20 sampling areas were more than DEDWQS (Draft Ethiopian drinking water quality system) and WHO surface water bacterial concentration guideline (0-10 coliform/100 mL) recommendation. Based on the biochemical tests, presence of Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella and E. coli were confirmed from 20 sampling areas. There were a statistically significant (p<0.05) difference among 20 sampling areas with respect to TCF MPN/100 mL and FCF MPN/100 mL of bacterial enumeration. There were also strong positive correlation between physicochemical and bacteriological parameters (p<0.01) and their “r” values found between -1<0<1. The result of the study showed that river and stream water basins that cross Gondar town were severely polluted. Therefore, suitable waste disposal treatment strategies as well as risk management and interim solution are needed to prevent adverse environmental and health impact.


Keywords: Bacteriological, Gondar town, colony forming unit, physicochemical, waste disposal.



Role of Dry Forests in Rural Socio-economic Development in Sub-Saharan Africa

Jigar Yirsaw Teshome PDF


FAO defines tropical dry forests as those experiencing a tropical climate, with summer rains, a dry period of 5 to 8 months and annual rainfall ranges from 500 to 1500 mm. Dry forests and woodlands are the main vegetation type in sub-Saharan Africa, covering over 17.3 million km2 in a total of 31 countries. Dry forests supply a wide range of ecosystem services, thus playing a significant and complex role in supporting the agricultural systems on which millions of subsistence farmers depend. In Sub-Saharan Africa, forest goods and services are extremely important for rural livelihoods, supplying food, medicine, shelter, fuels and cash income. The objective of this review is therefore to evaluate and synthesize the role of dry forests in the development of rural people and to indicate future research directions. Based on the reviewed literatures dry forests play a number of roles in the development of rural households, the main role of dry forests is that forest products supply livelihoods in the form of basic needs and income. The income from forest was in the form of subsistence and cash. In sub-Saharan African countries, forest products contribute about 75-90% of the energy consumption of households. Non-timber forest products (NTFPs) contribute as low as 4% (Zimbabwe, Thailand and India) up to as high as 95% (South Africa) of household income, 32.6% of annual household subsistence (Ethiopia) and 47-50% of forest product income (Ethiopia). The main beneficiary from forests was the rural poor, in that the poor households generate high income from forests when compared to their rich counterparts Female headed households gain higher income from forests than men headed households. Furthermore women were participated on forest products that are easily accessible and which do not need physical strength. Dry forests also play significant role in generating employment opportunity, to attract tourists and for cultural and spiritual values. In order to increase the benefit of women and rural poor in general there should be training and value addition in forest products. Furthermore appropriate rules and regulations should be in place in resource access to conserve the resource base.

Keywords: Tropical dry forests, Sub-Saharan Africa, non-timber forest products, household subsistence, employment.












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