ISSN: 2278-5213








Assessment of Prevalence, Incidence and Severity of Red Pepper Disease in Capsicum frutescens L.
at Central Gondar, Ethiopia

Yigrem Mengist, Daniel Tadesse and Abebe Birara PDF


Production and productivity of red pepper is highly threatened by different biotic and abiotic factors. Among biotic factors, disease is the most important factor that affects red pepper production in the world wide including Ethiopia. However, the relative distribution and severity of each disease across district has not been well identified to sound management strategies. Therefore, a survey was conducted which aimed to determine the prevalence, incidence and severity of major red pepper disease and investigate the association of disease parameters with crop management practices. A total of 120 farmers’ fields were randomly sampled from three districts namely West Denbiya, Esat Denbiya and Takusa in central Gondar zone of Amhara region during 2017 and 2018 cropping seasons. Disease incidence and severity varied across and within districts. Phytophthora root rot, Fusarium wilt, Bacterial leaf spot, Powdery mildew, Anthracnose, Cercospora leaf spot and Downy mildew were the most dominant and frequently occurring diseases of red pepper. Variables such as altitude, varieties, seed bed types, planting time and cropping pattern were significantly associated red pepper disease. Two years surveyed data were collected, analyzed and expressed using percentage. Among all surveyed districts, the findings indicated that the dominant red pepper disease severity were recorded from Phytophtora root rot (37.2%), Fusarium wilt (32.8%) and Powdery mildew (25.0%) whereas the minimum severity were recorded from bacterial leaf spot (12.8%) and Cercospora leaf spot (14.5%). The present study provides an indication of the prevalence, incidence and severity of red pepper disease on which integrated management strategies could be derived to improve red pepper production in the surveyed districts.

Keywords: Red pepper disease, disease incidence, Phytophthora root rot, Fusarium wilt, Cercospora leaf spot.



A study of Pulmonary Function Test in Stone Quarry Industry Workers in Wardha District

Manish Prasad and Vasant Wagh PDF


There is a widespread misconception that occupational health is mainly concerned with industries and industrialized countries. But in a country like India, millions of people are engaged in labor like stone grinding, Quarry workers, weaving, etc. So this study assessed the pulmonary function test among the Stone Quarry industry workers in Wardha District. It was a community based Cross-sectional study carried out in the stone quarries situated in villages of Wardha district. Normal Pulmonary Function Test (PFT) 56.60%, Obstructive lung disease found in 10.34%, Restrictive lung disease in 31.04%, mixed lung disease in 2.02%, Abnormal PFT in all was (43.40%). Pulmonary function test parameters were found to be significantly reduced among the quarry workers.

Keywords: Stone quarry, pulmonary function test, spirometry, morbidity, obstructive lung disease.


Evaluation of Land Use/Land Cover dynamics in and around Gondar Town, North West Ethiopia using
Remote Sensing and GIS Technologies

Muralitharan Jothimani and Wuletaw Mulualem PDF


The present study examines the utilization of Geographical Information System and Remote Sensing in mapping land use land cover modification in and around Gondar, Ethiopia between 1999 and 2017 therefore on notice and analyzes the modification that has taken within the study area between these periods using satellite image classification methodology. So as to attain these objectives, Satellite images of Landsat ETM+ for years 1999 and 2004 and Land sat OLI 8 for 2017 are obtained and processed using ArcGIS. The maximum likelihood formula of supervised image classification has been
accustomed to generate land use land cover maps. Land use land cover classification, change map, has been done by using Arc GIS code.
The modification results showed during 2004, the areal extent of agricultural lands, settlements and bush/shrub lands have accrued to fifteen.74%, 24.03
and 25.66%, respectively, whereas forest lands and barren lands areal extent has remittent to twenty seven.83% and 5.33%, respectively. By the year 2017, the areal extent of bush/scrub lands accrued by 42.5%, followed by settlements (25.46%) and barren lands (8.496%). The region extent of forest lands and agricultural lands was decreased to 10.03% and 13.37% respectively by the year 2017. Further, the modification results showed a continuous decline of forest lands throughout the study period. The known causes for forest lands decrement were population pressure and associated demands.

Keywords: Land use/land cover, change detection, supervised image classification, remote sensing.



Breast Self-examination Practice and its Associated Factors among Undergraduate Female Students at University of Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia

Mequanente Dagnaw PDF


Breast self-examination practice is a screening method used in an attempt to detect early breast cancer when it's more likely to be treated successfully. The method involves the woman herself looking at and feeling each breast for possible lumps, distortions or swelling. Breast cancer is a global health concern and a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among women. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to assess breast self-examination practice and its associated factors among female students at the University of Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia. Institutional based cross-sectional study was carried out from April to May 2014.  The study participants were recruited using a simple random sampling technique. Data was entered using Epi Data 3.02 statistical software and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Odds ratio with 95 % confidence intervals was used to assess the presence and strength of association. Out of 806 female students recruited, 803 participated in the study. The prevalence of breast self-examination practice was 45.8% with 95% CI, (42%, 50%). Using multivariate analysis, students 4th year and above were significantly associated with [AOR] = 2.34, 95% CI 1.33 -4.09) perceive barriers with (AOR= .66, 95% CI .488 -.897), perceived self-efficacy (AOR= 3.53, 95% CI, 2.56 -4.89) and heard of breast self-examination practice (AOR= 0.16, 95% CI, .07, 0.368). According to this study finding breast self-examination practice is low and it needs additional improvement respective of different associated factors including both first year and above undergraduate students of Gondar University to detect early breast cancer and avoid morbidity and mortality related to breast self -examination practice.

Keywords: Breast self-examination, female students, breast cancer, Gondar, health belief model.













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