ISSN: 2278-5213







A Preliminary Survey on Snake Diversity and Status in and around Villages of Shankaraghatta, Shivamogga, Karnataka, India

Deepak K. Phashi and Vijaya Kumara PDF


Shankaraghatta is a small village in Bhadravathi Taluk in Shimoga District and is situated 24 km from shimoga city and 4 km to Bhadra Reservoir amidst the dry deciduous forest and is located on the edge of Bhadra Tiger Reserve. The snake diversity and status was studied from May 2018 to April 2019 and it was found that the 25 species of snakes belonging to 7 families were reported. From the total identified species, 18 were non-venomous, 3 were venomous and 4 were mildly-venomous. Among the rare species, Brown vine snake (Ahaetulla pulverulenta), Ornate flying snake (Chrysopeleo ornate) and Green keelback (Macropisthodon plumbicolor) were reported. The family Colubridae dominates other families and Indian spectacle cobra (Naja naja) is the most rescued snake.

Keywords: Snake diversity, Shankaraghatta, venomous, brown vine snake, Indian spectacle cobra.


A Comprehensive Review on Emerging and Re-emerging Zoonotic Viral Diseases: A Major Threat to Human Beings

Saranya Devi. K PDF


A zoonotic disease is an infectious disease caused by pathogens such as bacteria, virus, rickettsia, fungi, parasite or prion that has been transmitted from an animal, especially a vertebrate to human beings. Usually, the first infected human transmits the infectious agent to other humans very rapidly; it is one of the important concerns of zoonoses. The World Health Organization (WHO) currently list the Emerging infectious diseases (EID) of epidemic issues in their research and development blueprint as COVID-19 (Corona viruses), Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), Ebola and Marburg viruses (Filovirus), Crimean Congo haemorrhagic fever (Nairo virus), Lassa Fever (Lassa virus), Nipah (Henipa virus ), Rift Valley fever (Phlebo virus) and Zika (Flavi virus). Due to the deadly pandemics facing by the globe, it is essential to understand the way of transmission of emerging viruses, its mode of infection and important measures to eliminate or control them from the world is essential. However, mankind overcomes so many deadly viruses with the help of scientific knowledge, through vaccination, new therapies, drugs etc. Nowadays, viral zoonoses like rabies (Lyssa virus) are 100% preventable through vaccination and medication even though, humans face lots of new threats especially emerging zoonosis diseases like Covid19. This review summarized the major zoonotic viruses affecting human beings, their source, pathogenicity and its important ways to overcome the transmission of microbes from animal to humankind.

Keywords: Zoonoses, pandemic, COVID19, influenza, emerging infectious diseases, vaccination.


Investigation on the Bilirubin Levels of Male and Female Jaundice Patients

R. Manimegala and A. Jayaprakash PDF


This study investigated on the bilirubin levels of male and female jaundice patients. Bilirubin levels (Total, Direct and Indirect Bilirubin) were analyzed using the standard methods. The present study showed that the total bilirubin, direct and indirect bilirubin levels were found to be normal in male and female patients. It was found that male aged 22 years had high total bilirubin levels compared to direct and indirect bilirubin. It was found that female aged 38 years had high total bilirubin levels compared to direct and indirect bilirubin. The bilirubin level can be elevated for a number of reasons, including liver failure which happens when the liver is no longer able to transform unconjugated bilirubin to conjugated bilirubin and excreted through stool. Unconjugated bilirubin accumulates in the body, giving patients with liver failure. Hemolytic anemia is characterized by the rapid loss of red blood cells in certain patients. As a result, their body has the inability to keep up with the breakdown, the patient becomes jaundiced.

Keywords: Bilirubin, jaundice, liver failure, conjugated bilirubin, hemolytic anemia.















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